Statement by Acting Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Alexander V. Konuzin, Official Security Council Meeting on "Complex Crises and United Nations' Role," May 28, 2004
The character of present-day global challenges and threats predetermines the necessity of collectively responding to them on the basis of overall consideration and respect for the lawful interests of all members of the international community with strict observance of the existing international legal norms and with the comprehensive use of the potential of various multilateral universal and regional institutions.
We note with satisfaction that, over a comparatively short time, considerable successes have been achieved within the UN framework in questions of the settlement of complex regional conflicts. The examples of the operations in Afghanistan, the DR of Congo, Sierra Leone, Timor-Leste, Liberia and in a number of other crisis areas strikingly demonstrate the inseparable link between the objectives of establishing peace, and the revival of statehood, a full-fledged social and economic rehabilitation of conflict-affected countries and the establishment of law and order.
The experience of the peacekeeping operations carried out over the last decade under the direction and with the authorization of the United Nations attests to a radical change in the character of the tasks and the shift from traditional observance of the implementation of cease-fire agreements to a comprehensive resolution of the problem, up to and including full-scale territory administration.
We consider that the United Nations Secretariat, and the international community have already largely readjusted their work in the peacekeeping sector in accordance with the new tasks. Thus, the interdisciplinary teams set up within the UN Secretariat are effectively working on the preparation of complex peacekeeping operations and the subsequent economic and social rehabilitation and state building of conflict-affected countries.
A good example of an "innovation" with the aim of raising the efficiency and effectiveness of UN peacekeeping operations is the coordination meetings of Special Representatives of the Secretary General to agree upon joint action and to deal with common transboundary problems stemming, among other things, from illegal arms supplies, uncontrolled movement of armed groups, the regulation of flows of refugees, and the provision of humanitarian aid in a number of African states.
The example of Afghan settlement offers an effective scheme for international support of the peace process. Thus, the political schedule, drawn up on the basis of the Bonn Agreement, was materially backed up by the decisions of the Tokyo Donor Conference and consistently realized by the team with Lakhdar Brahimi in the lead. The International Security Assistance Force is rendering substantial assistance in stabilizing the situation. Leading countries are carrying out important work in the promotion of military and legal reform, in the creation of a national police and in the fight against drugs.
It seems to us that the broad consensus on assistance to Afghan settlement that was established under the aegis of the UN has shown its effectiveness, and so it is not without reason that many are trying to fit the "Afghan model" to Iraq.
The coordinated international measures taken under the aegis of the UN have turned out to be successful, among other things, thanks to the unique ability of the Organization to combine its guiding activities in the fields of security and rehabilitation with the simultaneous division of responsibility with regional and sub-regional organizations in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations. This potential should be developed to ensure a genuinely legitimate and collective response to complex emergency situations in the conditions of international conflicts.
The experience that has now been accumulated by the Organization in this field shows with all the obviousness that the UN has achieved the most successful results in the cases where the constructive cooperation of international structures with local bodies of power and national governments was ensured. Problems arose otherwise. Now too there are difficulties carrying out the mandates of UNMEE and MINUCI and conducting the activities of the UN institutions in western areas of Sudan. A proper level of support has not been achieved for the activities of the UN Mission in Kosovo from the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government in this province of S & M. We are convinced that only close cooperation by all the players with the UN presences will make it possible to ensure the most effective comprehensive doctoring of the crises.
The further development of the "new type of partnership" between the UN and regional organizations is assuming particular importance. We note as positive examples of such cooperation the carrying under a UNSC mandate of the mission of the European Union in the DR of Congo and of the ISAF operation under NATO's control in Afghanistan, the deployment of a multinational force of the ECOWAS member countries in Liberia and the RCI and of the troop contingents of the African Union Mission in Burundi with their subsequent replacement by UN peacekeeping operations, and the cooperation of the peacekeeping missions of the UN and the Commonwealth of Independent States in the zone of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict.
A great deal still remains to be done to improve the peacekeeping capabilities of the United Nations, particularly in such fields as rapid deployment, prompt supply of material resources, financing, transportation, and personnel training. It is along this road that we should all continue to move forward, based on a common interest in rendering UN peacekeeping maximally effective for the purpose of resolving the various international and regional crises.